For many cloud users, a single cloud service provider (CSP) isn't enough. According to a 2019 IDC survey of nearly 300 enterprise IT decision makers, 93 per cent use multi-cloud infrastructures, which can include public CSPs, private hosted (single-tenant) systems, and on-premises systems using cloud technology for flexibility. Many (62 per cent) use multi-cloud for specific capabilities that a single provider can't service. Another driver is political, with different business units specifying their own providers.
More cloud platforms mean more complexity and vulnerability. Multi-cloud users must manage data security across not just one cloud environment, but several. These new worries will exacerbate those existing cybersecurity concerns.
Data breaches and exposures will be among the biggest fears for companies grappling with multi-cloud infrastructures. A simple misconfigured Kubernetes server can give attackers control of your container infrastructure, for example, while an S3 bucket or ElasticSearch database exposed by an uneducated user can make millions of sensitive records publicly available.
Multi-cloud data management isn't just about security; it also concerns availability. The broader their cloud infrastructure, the more susceptible companies are to DDoS attacks.
Visibility and control are key
Companies hoping to mitigate these risks face a visibility challenge. One of the cloud's promises is also one of its biggest problems: it shields users from the complexities of the underlying environment. It can be difficult enough seeing what's happening in a single cloud infrastructure that abstracts data and applications away from the hardware. Multiple clouds amplify that problem.
A lack of visibility leads to poor control. You can't manage what you can't see. This is where one of the cloud's biggest benefits is also one of its biggest challenges. Cloud infrastructures were built to be flexible and to empower their users. You want a new development server? Sure, spin one up. You need a persistent storage resource? Here's a database for you. But what happens when people misconfigure those resources or deploy them with sensitive information and then don't manage them?
A detailed security policy is a critical part of any approach to controlling any cloud solution. It serves as a baseline for secure operations and compliance with industry security and privacy regulations. There are various policy frameworks to choose from, including ISACA's Controls and Assurance in the Cloud using COBIT 5, and NIST's draft Cloud Computing Security Reference Architecture.
Having a policy isn't enough, though. IT environments are malleable and always evolving. Companies that don't monitor and control operations in the cloud risk one of the biggest cloud security dangers: configuration drift. This is where new resources and configurations move operations away from what the policy demands, creating vulnerabilities and regulatory violations.
Tooling up for cloud security
Companies can solve this problem by using cloud management platforms that give them more control over their operations. Single cloud infrastructure users might get away with that service provider's native cloud management solution, but multi-cloud customers will need a monitoring and control system that gives them a single-pane-of-glass view across all their cloud environments. A security information and event management (SIEM) system should ingest the logs from these monitoring tools, making it available for deeper analysis and long-term trending.
This rich data layer forms the basis for a capable cloud security solution that covers not just multiple clouds, but multiple functions. An integrated security technology stack will handle cloud security needs beyond data platform management and visibility. It will ingest threat intelligence to support deep threat analysis. It will draw on up-to-date product and service vulnerability data to conduct regular vulnerability analyses that companies can use to prioritise patching and change management.
This enhanced readiness will become increasingly important as attackers continue to innovate. We're only just beginning to glimpse the opportunities that artificial intelligence (AI) create for online criminals.
One example is the capability for automated attacks. The DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge demonstrated this in 2016, pitting AI-powered attackers against defenders in an all-machine hacking competition.
AI also makes it easier to mount social engineering attacks by scanning social media for information about potential targets. Thanks to generative adversarial networks (GANS) that generate fake audio, it's now even possible for AI to impersonate specific voices. Experts already suspect that criminals have used deepfakes in 'whaling' attacks, where malicious actors impersonate senior executives on the telephone and fool employees into transferring money.
AI will become an increasing part of the battle against attackers, too, as defenders fight fire with fire. We are already seeing machine learning tools mining oceans of network traffic and user log-on data to detect anomalies, alerting security analysts to potential problems. An integrated set of multi-cloud security tools helps cloud security teams to correlate seemingly unrelated incidents across multiple cloud environments, helping them to prevent security issues instead of reacting to them.
Over time, this technology will become a standard part of the cybersecurity technology stack. It has to, because attackers will continue to innovate. The smart money already knows this - the defenders in the DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge were also AI-powered.
Building solutions to protect yourself in a multi-cloud environment might seem like a daunting task, but not everything needs to happen at once. Most imperative is multi-cloud cybersecurity being built into a cloud strategy from the beginning rather than reactively bolting tools together.
Cybersecurity was never about 100 per cent security or passing and failing grades. It's a probabilistic discipline in which your commitment to the cause and willingness to iterate contribute directly to your overall success. By taking a strategic view and using risk assessment to prioritise your cybersecurity investments, you can begin a cycle of improvement that will evolve your cloud security and serve you for years to come.”